Editor's Note: The following is reprinted with the permission of the Council on Foreign Relations.
Libyan rebel leader Mustafa Abdul Jalil said forces loyal to ousted leader Moammar Gadhafi have until Saturday to surrender (BBC), or face military force. Jalil's comments came as the rebels' National Transitional Council (NTC) prepares to advance on Gadhafi's hometown of Sirte.
While Gadhafi's whereabouts remain a mystery, Algeria acknowledged that it had given sanctuary (NYT) to some of his relatives, including his second wife and three children.
The NTC accused Algeria of an "act of aggression" (al-Jazeera) and called for Gadhafi's family to be extradited to Libya. A rebel spokesman said Libya's new government wanted to arrest and try Gadhafi and his relatives.
The authoritarian government (Reuters) of Algeria–fearful of any spillover from the pro-democracy protests sweeping the Arab world–is Libya's only neighbor not to recognize the NTC as the country's new governing authority.
Gadhafi's defeat at the hands of the Western-backed rebels was a triumph for Obama and the principle of humanitarian intervention–one that is, unfortunately, unlikely to be repeated any time soon, writes CFR's Stewart Patrick in Foreign Affairs.
After a six-month struggle, Libya's rebels have seized power. The Economist looks at Tripoli in rebel hands and at the people now in control.
The odds of a peaceful, democratic transfer of power in Libya are long and the need for ongoing international intervention is very likely, says CFR's Robert Danin in this CFR Interview.
Syrian Forces Attack as Ramadan Ends
Syrian security forces killed at least seven (al-Jazeera) anti-government protesters, as demonstrations were held throughout Syria following morning prayers ending the holy month of Ramadan.
In his blog Pressure Points, CFR's Elliott Abrams outlines ways in which Syrian President Bashar al-Assad could fall from power, including a so-called palace coup.
China Central Bank Secretly Curbs Lending
The People's Bank of China reportedly issued a secret memo requiring the country's banks to keep more money on hold (WSJ) at the central bank in an effort to rein in lending. The move is at odds with efforts by the U.S. Federal Reserve and the European Central Bank to keep monetary policy loose in order to encourage lending.
JAPAN: The country's parliament elected Yoshihiko Noda, the former finance minister, as the new prime minister (BBC)–Japan's sixth in five years–after Naoto Kan and his cabinet resigned en masse on Tuesday.
Noda could be a reassuring presence amid economic and political turmoil, but it's not clear what energy he will have for global affairs, writes CFR's Sheila Smith.
SOUTH AND CENTRAL ASIA
U.S.-Taliban Talks Undermined by Karzai
According to Afghan and U.S. officials, U.S. talks with Taliban negotiator Tayyab Aga had advanced substantially until Afghan President Hamid Karzai foiled the negotiations (AP).
Steve Coll writes about the secret negotiations between the Obama administration and members of the Taliban in this New Yorker article.
INDIA: The country's growth slowed to an eighteen-month low, with the economy only expanding 7.7 percent in the most recent quarter. The central bank continues to combat high inflation (FT) by tightening monetary policy.
Violent Protests Ahead of Malema Hearing
South African supporters of African National Congress Youth League leader Julius Malema attacked police (Mail&Guardian) outside the Johannesburg headquarters of the ANC and burned pictures of President Jacob Zuma, as party leaders met for a disciplinary hearing over Malema's increasingly inflammatory rhetoric.
The highly privileged position of whites, the enduring poverty of blacks, and the slow rate of improvement fuel the rhetoric of radicals such as Malema, who resurrected the anti-apartheid song "kill the Boer, kill the farmer," writes CFR's John Campbell in his blog, Africa in Transition.
NIGERIA: Gangs of armed youths attacked Muslims (Reuters) celebrating the last day of Ramadan in the Nigerian city of Jos, located between the country's Muslim north and Christian south.
Pentagon 'Wasted' $30 Billion on Contracts
A report by the U.S. bipartisan Commission on Wartime Contracting in Iraq and Afghanistan, to be submitted to Congress on Wednesday, will claim that the Pentagon wasted more than $30 billion on wartime contracts (Politico) in the two countries.
BRAZIL: Brazilian Finance Minister Guido Mantega said Brazil will reduce public spending to allow for thelowering of interest rates (MercoPress) in the face of a potential global economic slowdown.
Merkel Warns Indebted Eurozone States
German Chancellor Angela Merkel warned indebted eurozone countries that they can't count on EU support if they don't make a substantial effort to reduce sovereign debt (DeutscheWelle). The announcement came as Italy reneged on some of the deficit-reduction measures it agreed to last month.
The eurozone, once seen as a crowning achievement in the decades-long path of European integration, is buffeted by a sovereign debt crisis of nations whose membership in the currency union has been poorly policed, says this CFR Backgrounder.
RUSSIA: President Dmitry Medvedev called an election for parliament's lower house (Guardian)–the country's only directly elected chamber–for December, four months ahead of presidential elections that could see Medvedev square off against Prime Minister Vladimir Putin.