By Joe Sterling, CNN
When the Tunisian revolt erupted last year, Tunisia's president fled power in weeks. When Egyptians took to the streets, longtime leader Hosni Mubarak was swiftly ousted as well.
In Libya, it took about seven months for rebels to topple dictator Moammar Gadhafi. And in Yemen, sustained anti-government protests eventually led to the departure from power of President Ali Abdullah Saleh.
But Bashar al-Assad, the president of embattled Syria, is a survivor.
He's remained ensconced in power despite an 11-month popular uprising, a bloody government crackdown against civilians, and world outrage at the tales and videos filtering out of Syria.
Observers say he's been able to stay in power with a combination of regime ruthlessness, diplomatic subterfuge, and internal sectarian dynamics.
Rafif Jouejati, spokeswoman for the Local Coordination Committees, the Syrian opposition group, said that when al-Assad came to power in 2000, he inherited a Soviet-style intelligence network erected by his father, Hafez Assad, who ruled from the early 1970s till his death in 2000.
That spider web of agencies has served to control popular discontent, she said.
"He has a network within a network within a network of intelligence services."
Al-Assad has continued what she calls "the family tradition." The repression has generated the widespread fear "embedded in day-to-day life" among the populace.
"He didn't come up with this himself. This came from his father," she said.
"In Syria, there are dozens of Mukhabarat-types of agencies that spy on one another," she said, using an Arabic term for intelligence agencies.
"In families, one doesn't know if one's sibling is an informant."
Jouejati said Hafez Assad was able to strike a deal with business elites 30 years ago during popular tumult then.
"That's been an important factor" and "up until recently" Bashar al-Assad has had the support of the business community.
She compares the current president to Germany's Adolf Hitler and Cambodia's Pol Pot. And she likens regimes in Haiti and North Korea, where sons inherited power from their fathers, to al-Assad's Baathist regime.
"He's got a whole group around him, many of whom are from the old guard and they keep the pressure going," with "Soviet-style tactics that other repressive regimes have used."
"They are raising the level the violence," she said.
She said al-Assad staked out his position "at a time when the world is sort of getting smaller and everybody is more aware of human rights and individual rights and governments are pushing people for more transparency."
He missed a "tremendous opportunity" to work for that kind of change in his own country, she said.
Andrew Tabler, a Syria expert at the Washington Institute for Near East Policy, said he thinks al-Assad has been more brutal than Mubarak and Serbian leader Slobodan Milosevic.
"He's been willing to use live fire extensively," he said. "He's just ruthless."
And in a reference to world and regional powers, Tabler said "very simply we have not been ruthless with him."
There has long been sectarian strife in the Middle East, particularly in Syria, where there are Sunni-Shiite as well as Muslim-Christian animosities, among others. Syria's diverse sectarian dynamics buttress al-Assad, Tabler said.
Al-Assad is part of an Alawite minority in Syria, a largely Sunni nation. That minority - which he calls a heterodox offshoot of Shiite Islam - prevails in the government and military.
It and other Shiite offshoots, such as Druze and Ismailis, have made up the core of the regime. Christians represent another minority that has not largely been anti-regime and even some Sunnis have made their peace with the government.
During the 11-month crisis, there has been a lot of international engagement with the regime.
But Tabler said al-Assad has done "a very good job of confusing diplomats."
"That's his M.O.," he said. "He consistently lies and confounds people."