What we need to know about Syria
July 18th, 2012
10:16 AM ET

What we need to know about Syria

By Fareed Zakaria

The death of Syria's defense minister – in an apparent suicide bombing for which the Syrian rebels have claimed responsibility – is a sign that the rebellion is gaining strength and the Assad regime is cracking. I certainly hope so, but it's important for us to admit that we actually know very little about what is going on in Syria.

Naturally, our hearts are with the rebels and the Free Syrian Army, so when we hear reports about this bombing, we hope it is a sign of their growing reach and effectiveness. But we don't really know much about the circumstances. Is the use of suicide bombing, for example, a sign of the greater involvement of Islamic jihadis?

Similarly, when we hear about a massacre, such as reports last week surrounding events in Hama province, we naturally assume that it has been done by the Syrian military in the most brutal possible way.

And in most cases it’s true. But in some cases we really don’t know enough to be sure. In this most recent massacre, there’s some evidence that perhaps the Syrian government’s version of events was closer to reality than we had realized. But what that highlights to me is not that the Syrian government is less culpable – this is a government that has systematically and brutally used violence against men, women and children. Bashar al-Assad and his henchmen have the blood of innocents on their hands. So whether all the stories are completely accurate or whether some of them are exaggerated seems to me largely irrelevant from a moral point of view.

What is relevant is this: we don’t know much about the rebels. We don’t know, for example, how organized they are or whether they are bands of free floating groups. We don’t know what is their agenda or agendas. And we also, despite today’s reports, don’t really know how effective they are.

The rebels don’t control any part of Syria. In fact, as far as I can see, they don’t seem to have even been able to hold a town in Syria for more than a day. They can launch sporadic attacks – sometimes very effective ones such as the bombing yesterday – they can keep government forces on edge. But they haven’t been able to hold territory. Compare that with Libya, where the Libyan rebels were able to hold almost a third of the country and they took control of a major city, Benghazi.

Now Libya is a very different place – it’s much bigger, with more open spaces to hide in. But that’s precisely my point – for reasons of geography, perhaps, or maybe because of lack of organization, the Free Syrian Army hasn’t been able to succeed in some basic ways. Perhaps it’s because the Syrian military is very powerful and effective. Perhaps there are other, sectarian, explanations.

The first step toward figuring out what we can or should do – understanding the situation on the ground.

What we need to know are the following: is the opposition fighting together in a coordinated way? Who leads it? Does the Syrian National Council — the main exile opposition group – have any sway over these forces? Do the groups on the ground have any sectarian flavor? Are they largely Kurdish or Sunni? What is the role of the jihadi militant groups in the Syrian rebellion?

All this is not an argument for inaction – I’ve laid out a strategy to put intense pressure of the Assad regime earlier. But we need good information. And I’d say this applies not just to Western governments, but to the Western media as well.

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Topics: Media • Middle East • Syria

soundoff (333 Responses)
  1. Bobby Dias

    Fareed Zakaria said "apparent suicide bombing"- Fareed Zakaria does not know as usual. Fareed Zakaria is always ignorant of facts but has a big mouth with hatred to somebofy, this time hating the Syrian government(who had the misfortune to be elected in an election cited by the United Nations as fair and without corruption.

    July 22, 2012 at 9:04 pm | Reply
  2. ameermirza

    Before taking on Syria, U.S. should heed lesson of the past

    http://bit.ly/LGtfhF

    July 23, 2012 at 1:05 am | Reply
  3. Dave

    I think you started your own Jihad in here Fareed. Good job. It should never matter what religion, beliefs, or faiths a person has or group of people have. God has over 600 names. Choose one. Because after all HE is ONE! What amazes me, is that regardless of which part of the world a person comes from; we all at one point came from across the oceans; "and crown thy good, with brotherhood, from sea to shining sea"...or at least that was the way it was supposed to be I thought...But you are correct about one thing...we aren't there...so how could we possibly know anything other than there are mass casualties occurring daily at the hands of another "Hitler" wannabe.

    July 23, 2012 at 9:43 pm | Reply
  4. pelaman

    I hope all the oil resources in the Middle East is lost for a while

    July 24, 2012 at 3:52 pm | Reply
  5. Roland

    What you need to know about Syria is that it's a dictator that doesn't take orders from Washington but instead from Moscow Beijing and Teheran.And is located in the region with " the greatest material prize in world history" and "a stupendous source of strategic power" aka the energy reserves of the Middle East.What the hearts of the American people do or say is irrelevant since the policy makers in Washington don't listen to what the American hearts say or want.Which is evident in the crackdown of pro-democracy activists in the oil rich nation of Bahrain home of the US navy fleet assigned to police the Persian Gulf latest success shooting an unarmed Indian fisherman that apparently got too close to a US navy vessel.God bless America.

    July 25, 2012 at 9:46 am | Reply
    • Nina

      What you need to know is that it is very well known that boats should not come close to a USA navy vessel. Nonetheless, after many warnings, the boat in question kept coming resulting in the death of all on board. A good warning to others.

      July 26, 2012 at 9:49 am | Reply
  6. ass9

    Those AKs are absolutely beautiful.

    December 6, 2012 at 7:06 pm | Reply
  7. Ruya Geran

    I find your article biased and provocatif. While you claim not much is known even about the bombings in Syria, you give an open support to the rebels and almost send them a message from here that they should get more organised. For this alone, your blogs should be banned.

    You say " for reasons of geography, perhaps, or maybe because of lack of organization, the Free Syrian Army hasn’t been able to succeed in some basic ways. Perhaps it’s because the Syrian military is very powerful and effective. Perhaps there are other, sectarian, explanations"

    Guess what, perhaps the rebels dont have the majority support from the people of Syria! In fact there is a common belief that most of the rebels you portray as the freedom army is made up of the infiltrants from Iraq and Iran who are aiming yet for another Shiite state. Moreover, I am yet to see an interview with Syrian Joe Public and friends condemning the Asad regime!

    I have no connection to the Middle East, yet the political strategy for the region worries me to no end. Syrian chaos is rather timely when Israel is trying to put into effect new plans for Gaza. I wonder what would happen to Golan Heights if Syria falls. Larger Israel? Would the rise of Hamas in Syria justify/rationalise the raison d'etre of Israel and why the US should continue to inject money to its little brother?

    A pole requires another pole for equilibrium. Here a pole is being created to justify the other. What a shame that one of the last geographies of secularity is being forced to fall, people's but mainly women's freedom is jeopardised along with the country's infrastructure and prosperity. Look what a handful of what you call freedom fighters turned Iraq, Egypt and Libya into...a place of chaos, powerty and radical islam hence no freedom. What happened to the poor US ambassador in Libya should say something...perhaps the real people of these countries. vs the foreign mucahids, did support their regime. Who are you and I to tell them what is good for them, the real citizens.

    Now think again why Syria is not cracking....

    December 12, 2012 at 1:05 pm | Reply
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