December 20th, 2013
06:02 PM ET

Canada in 2014: Separatist issue looms

By Jonathan Kay, Special to CNN

Editor’s note: Jonathan Kay is Comment Editor of the Toronto-based National Post newspaper. You can follow him @jonkay. The views expressed are his own. This is the fifth in the '14 in 2014' series, looking at what the year ahead holds for key countries.

The biggest challenge facing Canada in 2014? It’s the same one that has threatened Canadian unity since the country’s genesis: the status of the majority-French province of Quebec within Canada’s majority-Anglo confederation. But due to a series of political gambits recently launched by Quebec separatists, this age-old issue now comes with a new and disturbing post-9/11 twist.

American visitors to Montreal and Quebec City often come back describing the province as “European” in character. The term bespeaks praise for these cities’ cobblestoned historic areas, multilingual character, fine restaurants, and continental sophistication.

But, less charmingly, Quebec politicians also are more “European” than the rest of North America in their suspicious attitude toward immigrants. And this fact is creating a growing cultural estrangement between Quebec and the rest of Canada, further exacerbating the country’s longstanding rift over language.

While the United States embraces a “melting pot” approach to immigration, and Canada has embedded the principle of “multiculturalism” in its constitution, many Québécois are deeply protective of the cultural and linguistic character of their province, a largely Catholic (or lapsed Catholic) island of French in a North American Anglo Protestant sea. As in France, which banned the niqab and other face-covering garments in 2011, intellectuals and politicians in Quebec fret openly about newcomers from developing countries, Muslims especially – sometimes in a manner that the rest of Canada finds shocking and even racist.

Of course, all societies have their bigots. But the situation in Quebec has become especially problematic because of the manner by which Quebec’s separatist government is eagerly exploiting anti-immigrant sentiment to further a parochial political agenda.

The dominant party in the provincial legislature is the Parti Québécois (PQ), a 45-year-old party founded with the goal of breaking up Canada and creating a sovereign Quebec state. But polls consistently show that only a minority of Quebecers (about 30 percent to 40 percent, depending on how the question is asked) embrace the separatist cause. PQ politicians thus do their best to stir up grievances against Ottawa, in the hope that more public sentiment can be brought around to separation, and then ratified in the form of a third sovereignty referendum. (The first two, in 1980 and 1995, resulted in defeats for the separatists, which is why Quebec remains part of Canada.)

But that strategy has failed: Canada’s federal government, under both incumbent Conservative Stephen Harper and his Liberal predecessor Paul Martin, have conciliated Quebec, giving no pretext for separatist forces to rally. And so the increasingly desperate PQ has instead turned its demagogic campaign inward, against Quebec residents who dress in an “overtly religious” manner.

Under the PQ’s newly proposed “Charter Affirming the Values of Secularism” (widely known as the Secularism Charter), the provincial government would ban the display of any “overt” religious headgear by public employees – which would most notably include Mulsim hijabs, Sikh turbans and Jewish yarmulkes. (As a nod toward nominal religious neutrality, the Bill also would ban large crucifixes displayed on chains. But, as many critics have noted, the PQ failed to take down a large Christian cross adorning the provincial legislature, thereby making nonsense of their evenhanded conceit.) If the bill becomes law in 2014, a huge swathe of workers, including bureaucrats, day-care providers, teachers and medical professionals, will have to decide between publicly expressing their faith and keeping their jobs.

According to the Quebec government, such legislation would help protect Quebec society from religious extremism. But outside of a few scattered anecdotes (one trumped up controversy, for instance, revolved around the desire of a handful of Sikh children to play soccer while wearing their turbans), the urban regions where immigrants live generally are marked by peaceful co-existence. Indeed, it is only since Quebec introduced its Secular Charter in 2013 that racial and religious tensions have worsened.

The Secularism Charter has alienated the province’s immigrants and religious minorities, many of whom now wonder whether they have a future in Quebec. But for ardent separatists, this isn’t seen as a bad thing: Most newcomers to Canada care little for Quebec’s separatist grievances, and can be expected to vote no in any future referendum. Quebec Premier Pauline Marois’ PQ would likely be happy to see these federalists depart for other jurisdictions – along with the province’s increasingly beleaguered and disenfranchised Anglo minority – thereby leaving Quebec with a more “purified,” French-speaking, pro-sovereigntist Québécois electorate.

It is uncertain whether this gambit will work. Marois commands only a minority government in the provincial legislature, and the future of the Secularism Charter isn’t certain. Polls show support for the Charter, in the abstract, among many Francophones, especially in rural regions. But various municipalities, schools and hospitals already have declared that they will not enforce the Charter, even if it becomes law – thus raising the politically unappetizing possibility of the province having to send its agents into doctors’ offices and classrooms to confront hijab- or yarmulke-wearing public servants.

But one thing is certain: The entire episode has not only upended the social peace in Quebec, it has disgusted many Canadians outside Quebec. For decades, Quebec separatists have sought to convince the world that their worldview and Canada’s is fundamentally incompatible. They may finally have succeeded, albeit in the ugliest manner possible.

Topics: Canada

soundoff (100 Responses)
  1. dudley

    How can the Quebec teenager manage to take most of the Albertan parent's money with it when it secedes? This is the question.

    I say look to France for the financial support needed to move Quebec to the NW Terrs because there is no room for France on the American border. Trust me on this.

    January 4, 2014 at 1:17 am | Reply
  2. Craig Hubley

    The principle of the Charter of Values – secular neutral public services – is fine.

    Yes it came with clumsy rules which leave big crosses in public places and present Jewish or Sikh men or Muslim women with impossible dilemmas (while not inconveniencing Jewish or Sikh women nor Muslim men). But despite the deliberately patronizing reporting focusing only on this problem, and attempting to portray all of the supporters of the Charter as racist, a secular public service is a sound goal.

    Quebec's departure will hinge on other public valuescissues such as preserving administrative fairness, conflict of interest enforcement on publuc officials, investigation of electoral fraud by someone other than the fraudulently elected MPs themselves, role and support of science in public decisions, and investment in crime prevention and social services not in post facto punishment.

    And on infrastructure issues like high speed rail, modern power grids and electric vehicles, universal gigabit broadband... an industrial not dirty export economy.

    And an international law based framework for dealing with First Peoples.

    On all these fronts Quebec has more in common with the EU or the US than with Harperite Canada.

    If Manitoba falls to the far right and if Tim Hudak imposes his incompetent 1920s style economics on Ontario, the stage will be well set. Quebec will be sore pressed to justify remaining in the country that arranged the mass murder in Lac Megantic (mislabelled cars, no GPS on cars, special permits to only two oil shippers to operate with one man, a fite dept sent home before the blast, a public official suspended without explanation – this does not add up to "accident").

    When Tar Sands writedowns take out the false Harper economy and the housing bubble crashes, Canada may repent.

    But by then it may well be a smaller country.

    The Maritimes and Newfoundland would be better off as small transatlantic broker states like Iceland or Ireland than to remain tied to rump Canada over two borders.

    Confederation made the Maritimes poor. Its end will be welcomed by anyone who studies the history of transatlantic trade and telecommunication.

    In an era of cheap energy land routes are important. When energy is expensive, it's the sea that counts...

    February 8, 2014 at 10:07 pm | Reply
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